## Mathematics

**MATH PATHWAYS (course flowchart)**

**Computer Science Pathway**

Mathematics is offered in three college preparatory sequences. Generally, students take a four‑year sequence that leads to readiness for the first calculus course in college. For those beginning this sequence in the 9th grade, the courses taken are Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2 and Pre‑Calculus.

Advanced students take a sequence that prepares them for Advanced Placement AB Calculus or its equivalent in college. The course sequence includes Algebra 1A, Geometry A, Algebra2/TrigA, Intro to Analysis and Calculus and Advanced Placement AB Calculus.

The most advanced students take a four-year honors sequence that culminates with the Advanced Placement BC Calculus exam as a senior. For those beginning this sequence in the 9th grade, the courses taken are Geometry H, Algebra2/TrigH, Analysis Honors and Advanced Placement BC Calculus.

For students taking Alg 1/1A in 9th grade, it's still possible to reach AB Calculus in 12th grade, by doing summer work.

We offer Math electives in AP Statistics and Applied Math. Other related electives (found in CTE) include various Computer Science courses, and BEAM (Business Entrepreneurship and Math).

**Math Course Textbooks**

The Gunn Math Department recommends that some students do summer homework to prepare themselves for next Fall.

### Entering Alg2/TrigA or bridging Alg2/TrigH from GeoA

Students are strongly encouraged to review vital Algebra skills over the summer. We have the following resources for this:

Alg2/Trig Summer Homework solutions [2]

Curated set of videos/quizzes for more support: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1tvylIPOHk7bCPUBSUG4zS3ijv-paYBFcLoQ8l0T8FB0/edit [3]

### Entering AB Calculus

Students going to AB Calculus next year (especially those bridging up from Pre-Calculus) are encouraged to review Advanced Algebra skills by doing the following:

AB Calc Summer Homework solutions [5]

### Entering Analysis

Students bridging up to Analysis from Alg2/TrigA will need to learn a few topics on their own this summer. These are topics that other Analysis students learned in Alg2/TrigH. The following attached pdf has links to instructional videos and also problem sets

Students in Precalculus, Algebra2/TrigA and Algebra2/TrigH complete many of their homework assignments online. Using MathXLforSchool. This website provides instant feedback on the correctness of student work. Students using the site also have access to similar example problems, videos explaining the concepts, and guided instruction to help solve the problem step by step.

https://www.mathxlforschool.com/home_school.htm [8]

**What online resources do you recommend for homework support?**

The first online tool to check is Schoology or the math teacher’s webpage. You will typically find posted notes, homework guides, and possibly other online tools identified by your teacher to give you extra help on a particular topic.

One of the most popular online tutoring tools is Khan Academy [9], which has videos on a wide range of math topics. Students who are looking for help in Algebra 1, Geometry and Algebra 2 may also find Purple Math [10] a helpful website. This site includes links to lessons, learning forums, homework guidelines, and a study skills self-survey. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [11](NCTM) has a host of useful resources for parents looking for ways to help their children improve.

The following website is an additional good resource for homework help: http://www.virtualnerd.com [12]

Finally, many classes use an online graphing calculator application called Desmos [13].

### How can I find out more information about homework expectations in my student’s class?

All teachers post homework calendars on Schoology and/or their webpage. Teachers’ individual homework guidelines are explained on the course syllabus, which is also posted on Schoology or their webpage. These guidelines include the purpose of homework, expectations for student work, explain how students receive feedback on homework assignments and give suggestions for how students can get their questions answered.

Typical ways that teachers provide feedback on homework include posted solutions, review in class, small group discussion, or correction by a student TA. As a department, we are committed to providing answers to all assigned problems either in the back of the book (BOB), posted online, or distributed in class so that all students can self-assess their work.

### How is homework evaluated and counted towards students’ grade?

Recent research shows that grading student homework [14] results in lower scores on quizzes and tests. Peer and self-assessment [15] seem to be more effective strategies of correcting homework. Alfie Kohn outlines three consistent effects of letter or number grades: grades tend to reduce students’ interest in the learning itself, grades tend to reduce students’ preference for challenging tasks, and grades tend to reduce the quality of students’ thinking. For this reason, most teachers count homework as an effort or participation grade. In other words, if students try hard and attempt all of the problems they will receive full credit.

### How does the teacher give each student feedback on his or her work?

Every student should receive feedback on their work during class using formative assessment [16]. Using formative assessment strategies, a teacher gains understanding of what students know (and don’t know) in order to adjust instruction so that all students meet the learning objective. Math teachers are continually monitoring student work throughout the class period by listening to students’ small group discussions, checking all the class answers using mini-whiteboards or electronic surveys, collecting “exit tickets” and giving feedback on one problem, etc. An important part of formative assessment is formative feedback [17] that communicates information to the learner that is intended to improve student learning.

All mathematics classes at Gunn use both on-line and hand-held calculators. Students enrolled in Alg2/TrigA or Alg2/TrigH (or any higher class in the Advanced or Honors lanes) will need their own graphing calculator. The two most popular models are the TI-84 plus and the TI-Nspire. These calculators are required on the AP Calculus AB and BC exams and it is our job to get the students comfortable with them well ahead of time.

PAUSD Policy regarding Math Placement: https://www.pausd.org/curriculum/secondary-math-placement [18]

As a rule, PAUSD Summer School is only for credit recovery, not for advancement (taking GEO A for rising 10th graders is the one exception). So we’d recommend enriching your students mathematical background by studying problem solving, contest math, or some other topic not offered at Gunn.

The **Art of Problem Solving** [19] offers many on-line courses. We’d recommend a selection from their “Contest Math” Series, “intermediate math” series or computer science. While your student won’t receive PAUSD credit for these courses it will help them improve their skills as a problem solver.

**AMC advantage** [20] is an on-line course developed to help students with problem solving and contest math.

**Paly** often offers a summer problem solving class. Please see the course offerings on the PAUSD Summer School [21] website.

The American Mathematical Society has a page with great resources for summer enrichment opportunities:

**1. What math class should my student take?**

Students coming to Gunn from Fletcher, JLS, or Greene will choose a class based on interest, teacher recommendation and prerequisites. Students *new* to the district must take a placement test.

**2. What are the differences between the course sequences?**

Each course sequence is a 4-year college preparatory mathematics program that prepares students for college or other post-secondary programs. The difference between the courses is the pacing, depth of study and level of challenge.

**3. Can a student take courses from different math sequences ?**

Yes. Students can choose math courses from any sequence each year. Students are not required to stay in the same math sequences over their four years at Gunn. 9th grade students enrolled in an Algebra course are advised to take Geometry over the summer if they would like to take calculus in their senior year.

**4. What if a student comes from a school with an integrated math program? **

Gunn does not offer an equivalent to an integrated math program. 9th grade students enrolled in an integrated math program should generally take a placement test covering Algebra. 10th grade students should generally take a placement test covering Geometry.

**5. Is it possible to borrow a book for use over the summer?**

We do not check out books over the summer. However, the titles and ISBN numbers of the books used for each class are available on this site, and most textbooks can be purchased online.

Gunn Math Circles is a student-run club for students who love math. Meeting time is focused on preparing for math contests like the AMC, listening to “math talks” by guest speakers (adults and students) and exploring non-routine problems and proofs. Occasionally we use meeting time to take the CML or begin a contest such as the BAMO. The club meets once a week.

A math course is much more than learning content. It involves discussions, problem solving, constructing viable arguments, critiquing the reasoning of others, projects, enrichment and more. Skipping courses in the Gunn Math Honors sequence should be very rare.

In fact, the only possible class to skip is Alg2/Trig H. The reasoning is as follows:

- Geometry is a graduation requirement and must be taken at PAUSD (or another school district).
- The Analysis H curriculum is non-standard and features many college level topics and an emphasis on problem solving that cannot be replicated by self-study.

To skip Alg2/TrigH a student must satisfy the following requirements:

- Average 93% or higher on unit tests in Geo H.
- Earn a qualifying score on the AMC 10 or 12 (offered twice in February).
- Earn a score of 93% or higher on the Alg2/Trig H final exam. Such an exam will be arranged with the Gunn Math Instructional Lead and be taken before Summer Break.

Skipping courses outside of the Honors lane is never allowed.

Please visit our Summer Opportunities page for additional enrichment options.